What Is DHCP Server And How Does It Work?
What Is DHCP Server And How Does It Work?
When we you guys configure a dynamic IP address. You may not know that actually the dynamic IP is obtained from another device that has a DHCP server. The DHCP server also simplifies the process by automating IP assignments without compromising device security or functionality. Then What Is DHCP Server and How Does It Work?
Definition of DHCP Server
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a type of protocol that works on the client or server side to automatically provide computer IP addresses including host IP addresses, subnet masks, gateways, and DNS server addresses. DHCP server is a type of service on a server computer as a provider of IP address addresses and assigns them automatically to each client. The DHCP client is tasked with finding an active DHCP server service and requesting address configuration on the client computer.
How DHCP Servers Work
1. When the client computer is turned on, and the client DHCP feature is activated in a local network connection, the client computer will broadcast a request (DHCP discover) which aims to find the existence of a DHCP server in the local network. This process is known as IP least request.
2. The DHCP discover packet will be forwarded and broadcast in its entirety to all hosts on the network, either via a switch, hub or router.
3. The DHCP server that is currently active (listen) will receive the DHCP discover packet. Furthermore, the server will check in its service whether the IP address is still available or not based on the configuration that has been previously set. If it is still available, the server will save the address so that it is not used by other computers. After that, the packet is sent to the client or often referred to as the offer package or DHCP offer. The offer package contains some information such as host address, subnet mask, DNS address, WINS server, NTP server, router, and so on. At this stage it is often called the IP least offer.
4. After that, the client will send a request or DHCP request packet as a sign that the addressing offer is needed. This process is often referred to as the IP lease section stage.
5. The server then responds by sending back an ACK packet or often called a DHCP ACK to confirm that the client's request has been approved and has been granted within a certain period of time or known as the IP lease acknowledge stage.
6. Finally, if the IP address leased by the client has expired or expired, it will be returned to the server. This mechanism is referred to as the lease period.
Type of DHCP Server IP Address Allocation
1. Manual Allocation
Manual Allocation is to determine the distribution of IP addresses on each client computer by recording and first entering each MAC address in the DHCP server. Although classified as safe, this technique is quite inconvenient if the number of clients is large.
2. Automatic allocation
Automatic Allocation is a method that will automatically and randomly allocate IP addresses to clients, and is declared valid when connected to a DHCP server. The server will assign the use of the IP address to the client based on its MAC address statically, unless the administrator makes a configuration change
3. Dynamic Allocation
Dynamic Allocation is a method that is the default DHCP server work standard which will provide an address to the client computer that requests it regardless of connection status and MAC address. The server will send an IP address configuration based on a certain time as long as the IP address is still available.
Benefits of DHCP Servers
1. Facilitate administrators in mapping and allocating IP addresses on each client computer in the network.
2. IP address settings become more dynamic and can be managed centrally without reconfiguring on the client side.
3. Often used for large-scale networks.
4. Make it easy for administrators to monitor and analyze the allocation of IP addresses that are not used by clients.
5. Prevent the emergence of IP conflicts.
So What Is a DHCP Server? is a protocol that provides fast, automated, and centralized management of the distribution of IP addresses within a network. DHCP is also used to configure the subnet mask , default gateway , and DNS server information on the device.
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